2016年8月28日 星期日

一條河

【第二屆十大「節」出綠繪本.得獎作品賞】第一名:《海邊的診所》 - 環境通訊網
http://enw.e-info.org.tw/content/1949
【第二屆十大「節」出綠繪本.得獎作品賞】海大富獎:《海龜的願望》 - 環境通訊網
http://enw.e-info.org.tw/content/1954
The Survival of the Sea Turtle - YouTube
https://youtu.be/t-KmQ6pGxg4
【第二屆十大「節」出綠繪本.得獎作品賞】佳作:《不要的垃圾》 - 環境通訊網
http://enw.e-info.org.tw/content/1953
海邊什麼垃圾最多? - 台灣環境資訊協會
http://teia.tw/zh-hant/event/story/6974
世界烏龜日 淨灘垃圾化身繽紛大海龜 - 環境通訊網
http://enw.e-info.org.tw/content/2832
(18) 還地球幸福的笑臉 - 【分享30萬次,捐出30萬元!金曲歌后彭佳慧用音樂幫助小海龜】...
https://www.facebook.com/protect.earth.ocean/videos/642067719285206/

【賞讀.綠繪本】野溪整型記 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心
http://e-info.org.tw/node/112255

塑膠袋流浪記
https://youtu.be/eXoozwXK6RE

單元名稱:從山裡逃出來/垃圾,丟啊!
http://ee.tc.edu.tw/06edu%20popularize/99/picture%20book/98/teaching%20plan/book-1.pdf

海洋科學繪本-你為什麼住這裡?
https://youtu.be/eMAo7iQAWPQ

 

2016年8月25日 星期四

FATAL: kernel too old

I used buildroot to generate bzImage and rootfs.cpio.gz, but always get "FATAL: kernel too old", no matter how I config the BR2_KERNEL_HEADERS_XXX and BR2_PACKAGE_HOST_LINUX_HEADERS_CUSTOM_XXX.

Google said the glibc need --enable-kernel, but buildroot already gave that. Then I found that my 3.13 kernel include/linux/version.h has LINUX_VERSION_CODE configured to something like 3.4....

I'm using Linux kernel checkout by git. It seems that the include/linux/version.h was generated when I were using 3.4, which I don't even remember when.

So if you got this error, and happen to be using linux source checkout by git, maybe try

git clean -xfd
Hopes this save your day, cause I've spent mine on this stupid reason. sigh.

2016年8月24日 星期三

2016年8月8日 星期一

Linux perf "irq/sec"

perf top has a value "irq/sec"

linux/tools/perf/builtin-top.c, perf_top__mmap_read_idx(), top->samples is increased whenever read a sample.

linux/tools/perf/util/top.c, perf_top__header_snprintf(), the irq/sec is the value of samples_per_sec, which is calculated by:
        float samples_per_sec = top->samples / top->delay_secs;

Therefor, the irq/sec is, sample rate. Period.

2016年7月31日 星期日

虹光漆 筆記


刮除壁癌
有些地方很好刮除,但有些地方很奸詐,沒水不會浮,有水就浮給你看,後來我都再刷一層水檢查有沒有浮起的地方一起刮除。

防壁癌漆

批土


底漆 白漆兩層
虹牌450水性水泥漆 白色 平光 與 有光 1:1混合,加10~20%水混合,油漆刷沾上去要有點糊,刷兩層。



色漆3-4層

德寶 環保水性木器塗料 水性環保75%平光面漆 1L
奇美油漆行

易耕 溼水彩
黃,藍綠,綠,黃綠
牛頓 要用 透明水彩

漆與水的比例(顏料算水)漆:水

第一層
一般顏色以 1:9,藍色比較重1:13。
塗到邊緣時要漸層,方便下次或下個人接續,才不會在相接處形成明顯的線條

第二層 1:6
第三層 1:4

四年級
第一層淡金黃,第二層濃金黃,第三層藍綠,第四層黃綠色做漸層
二年級
淡橙紅/橙紅/橙黃

暖色要先上

橘 先上橙紅 再上橙黃
綠 先上黃 再上藍綠


色料三原色 | .✣Miffy✣騎大象✣.
http://loveaesthetic.blogspot.tw/2007/08/johannes-itten-1888-19671961.html

透明水彩六大調色觀念
http://artprince.shop2000.com.tw/edm/3870

2016年6月21日 星期二

Linux: How to find the device driver used for a device?

Linux: How to find the device driver used for a device?
http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/41817/linux-how-to-find-the-device-driver-used-for-a-device

#!/bin/bash
for f in /sys/class/net/*; do
    dev=$(basename $f)
    driver=$(readlink $f/device/driver/module)
    if [ $driver ]; then
        driver=$(basename $driver)
    fi
    addr=$(cat $f/address)
    operstate=$(cat $f/operstate)
    printf "%10s [%s]: %10s (%s)\n" "$dev" "$addr" "$driver" "$operstate"
done


2016年6月12日 星期日

[git-svn] customized branch checkout

To clone the SVN repo that is not standard layout, only part of the branches are required.

Edit .git/config:

[svn-remote "svn"]
        url = http://blabla.com/svn/
        fetch = foo1/bar1:refs/remotes/svn/bar1
        branches = foo2/{bar2,bar3, bar4}:refs/remotes/svn/*
        branches = foo3/{bar5}:refs/remotes/svn/*

Checkout only certain branches with git-svn · GitHub
https://gist.github.com/trodrigues/1023167

2016年4月29日 星期五

不專業碳排計算

使用免洗杯/盤/碗/吸管 0.02kg/個
購買瓶裝飲料0.295kg/罐
塑膠袋0.0001kg/個
購買進口食品/蔬果(以每公斤蔬果運送1000km)0.02kg
自行開車0.22kg/km
搭電梯0.22kg/樓
開冷/暖氣1.4kg/小時
使用電腦0.156kg/小時



種樹減碳是正途 - stanleyhsu 的部落格 - udn部落格
http://blog.udn.com/stanleyhsu/13535052

水黃皮固碳能力
400顆/公頃
43.99T/年公頃
110kg/顆年
行政院環保署 台灣產品碳足跡
https://cfp.epa.gov.tw/CARBON/EZCFM/FUNCTION/PLATFORMINFO/FLACTIVITY/CARBONTIPS.ASPX
每天少開一小時冷氣。(以冷氣功率220W計算) 1.40kg
[商業交流] - 碳管理趨勢概述_以食品碳足跡為例(FOR 銘傳).pdf
http://gad.mcu.edu.tw/sites/default/files/u3/%E7%A2%B3%E7%AE%A1%E7%90%86%E8%B6%A8%E5%8B%A2%E6%A6%82%E8%BF%B0_%E4%BB%A5%E9%A3%9F%E5%93%81%E7%A2%B3%E8%B6%B3%E8%B7%A1%E7%82%BA%E4%BE%8B%28FOR%20%E9%8A%98%E5%82%B3%29.pdf
運具
kgCO2/\公噸-公里
航空1.58
卡車0.27
海運0.02
行政院環保署 台灣產品碳足跡
https://cfp.epa.gov.tw/CARBON/EZCFM/FUNCTION/PLATFORMINFO/FLABELPRODUCT/FLFOREIGNPRODUCTEMISSIONS.ASPX
Average(360,240,170,360,240,500,150,340)/1000=0.295kg
http://www.candcprinting.com/upload/file/green/GreenNewsletter201004_tch.pdf
10對一次性筷子,碳排放量為0.2千克
一個塑膠袋碳排放量為0.1克。
電梯每上下一層,碳排放量為0.218千克
少搭電梯=少開車? | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心 
http://e-info.org.tw/node/37587
搭乘電梯上下一層樓會排放0.218kg的CO2
汽車的碳排放係數0.22kg/km



2016年4月26日 星期二

GIT newline configuration

Usually I prefer to disable autocrlf:

git config --global core.autocrlf false

When you see any of the following message, it means git autocrlf is working:
warning: CRLF will be replaced by LF in XXXXX.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory.

fatal: CRLF would be replaced by LF in XXXXX.


Dealing with line endings - User Documentation
https://help.github.com/articles/dealing-with-line-endings/

Help

core.safecrlf

    If true, makes Git check if converting CRLF is reversible when end-of-line conversion is active. Git will verify if a command modifies a file in the work tree either directly or indirectly. For example, committing a file followed by checking out the same file should yield the original file in the work tree. If this is not the case for the current setting of core.autocrlf, Git will reject the file. The variable can be set to "warn", in which case Git will only warn about an irreversible conversion but continue the operation.

    CRLF conversion bears a slight chance of corrupting data. When it is enabled, Git will convert CRLF to LF during commit and LF to CRLF during checkout. A file that contains a mixture of LF and CRLF before the commit cannot be recreated by Git. For text files this is the right thing to do: it corrects line endings such that we have only LF line endings in the repository. But for binary files that are accidentally classified as text the conversion can corrupt data.

    If you recognize such corruption early you can easily fix it by setting the conversion type explicitly in .gitattributes. Right after committing you still have the original file in your work tree and this file is not yet corrupted. You can explicitly tell Git that this file is binary and Git will handle the file appropriately.

    Unfortunately, the desired effect of cleaning up text files with mixed line endings and the undesired effect of corrupting binary files cannot be distinguished. In both cases CRLFs are removed in an irreversible way. For text files this is the right thing to do because CRLFs are line endings, while for binary files converting CRLFs corrupts data.

    Note, this safety check does not mean that a checkout will generate a file identical to the original file for a different setting of core.eol and core.autocrlf, but only for the current one. For example, a text file with LF would be accepted with core.eol=lf and could later be checked out with core.eol=crlf, in which case the resulting file would contain CRLF, although the original file contained LF. However, in both work trees the line endings would be consistent, that is either all LF or all CRLF, but never mixed. A file with mixed line endings would be reported by the core.safecrlf mechanism.

core.autocrlf

    Setting this variable to "true" is almost the same as setting the text attribute to "auto" on all files except that text files are not guaranteed to be normalized: files that contain CRLF in the repository will not be touched. Use this setting if you want to have CRLF line endings in your working directory even though the repository does not have normalized line endings. This variable can be set to input, in which case no output conversion is performed.

Ubuntu 16.04 error: undefined reference to `create_module'


Building module-init-tools-3.2 in Ubuntu16.04 failed:
lsmod.o: In function `try_old_version':
./module-init-tools-3.2/backwards_compat.c:56: undefined reference to `create_module'
This is because 16.04 uses GLIBC 2.23 which doesn't export the obsoleted API create_module.

create_module(2) - Linux manual page
http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man2/create_module.2.html
This obsolete system call is not supported by glibc. No declaration is provided in glibc headers, but, through a quirk of history, glibc versions before 2.23 did export an ABI for this system call. Therefore, in order to employ this system call, it was sufficient to manually declare the interface in your code; alternatively, you could invoke the system call using syscall(2).
Xenial (16.04) : glibc package : Ubuntu
https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/xenial/+source/glibc
glibc (......) version: 2.23-0ubuntu3

FIX:
Enable CONFIG_NO_BACKWARDS_COMPAT for module-init-tools-3.2.

2016年4月25日 星期一

kernel failed building kernel on Ubuntu 16.04: Can't use 'defined(@array)'

Error while building kernel with Ubuntu16.04:

  TIMEC kernel/timeconst.h
Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?) at kernel/timeconst.pl line 373.
Fixed by:
Linux Kernel - [PATCH 1/5] kbuild: remove deprecated use of defined in timeconst.pl
http://linux-kernel.2935.n7.nabble.com/PATCH-1-5-kbuild-remove-deprecated-use-of-defined-in-timeconst-pl-td556009.html

Problem compiling Linux Kernel linux-3.0.35-fsimx6-V2.0 - armStoneA9 - Freescale i.mx6 - F&S Support Forum
http://forum.fs-net.de/index.php/Thread/3959-Problem-compiling-Linux-Kernel-linux-3-0-35-fsimx6-V2-0/
It seems there is a problem with Perl v5.22.0.



2016年4月19日 星期二

外來種



紅色生態劊子手:美國螯蝦 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心
http://e-info.org.tw/node/86945

福壽螺入侵台灣的事件 @ 真珠美人魚 :: 隨意窩 Xuite日誌
http://blog.xuite.net/dkes61121/61121/23900385-%E7%A6%8F%E5%A3%BD%E8%9E%BA%E5%85%A5%E4%BE%B5%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E7%9A%84%E4%BA%8B%E4%BB%B6

臺中區農業改良場 - 福壽螺引進的省思
http://www.tdais.gov.tw/show_monthly.php?id=tdais_tdais_edit_20080313015242





銅錢草
http://kplant.biodiv.tw/%E9%8A%85%E9%8C%A2%E8%8D%89/%E9%8A%85%E9%8C%A2%E8%8D%89.htm

二子坪濕地清出150籃3大袋外來種 渣打志工戰果豐 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心
http://e-info.org.tw/node/43718

荒野保護協會雙連埤環境教育基地: 雙連埤環境教育基地與外來種2013.02.07
http://shuanglianpi.sow.org.tw/2013/02/20130207.html

銅錢草- 台灣Wiki
http://www.twword.com/wiki/%E9%8A%85%E9%8C%A2%E8%8D%89







2016年4月14日 星期四

Setupt PIC32 Development environment


PIC32 Development on Mac OS X and Linux
http://www.paintyourdragon.com/uc/osxpic32/index.html

Download the required images:
http://www.paintyourdragon.com/uc/osxpic32/c32-build.tar.gz
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/MPLABC32-v105-Evaluation.exe
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/pic32-microchip-release-1-05-20090302-source.tar.gz
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/pk2cmdv1.20LinuxMacSource.tar.gz


Ubuntu 14.04.2+c32-build = not work~
After the following patch:
http://www.microchip.com/forums/m416697.aspx

But still have issue on bison 3.0 (Ubuntu 14.04). The general solution to this is to downgrade to bison 2.7.  I don't want to try this on my working computer.


VirtualBox+Ubuntu8.04+c32-build = work!!
I setup a VirtualBox with Ubuntu8.04.
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EOLUpgrades
Edit /etc/apt/sources.list, replace all the server with "old-releases.ubuntu.com".
Then install the required package:

apt-get update
apt-get install bison cpp flex g++ gcc gettext  patch patchutils
libncurses5-dev  automake  libtool build-essential libncurses5-dev
zlib1g-dev gawk ccache gettext libssl-dev xsltproc g++ zlib1g-dev gawk
libncurses5-dev
apt-get install wine libusb-dev
apt-get install openssh-server
Then I could complete the procedure without problem.

Ubuntu 14.04.2 + Latest MPLab X IDE + My project

MPLAB- XC Compilers | Microchip Technology Inc.
http://www.microchip.com/mplab/compilers

Get Started with MPLAB® X IDE and Microchip Tools - Developer Help
http://microchip.wikidot.com/tls0101:start


Install the following:

Install MPLAB® X IDE - Developer Help
http://microchip.wikidot.com/install:mplabx

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/MPLABX-v3.26-linux-installer.tar
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/xc32-v1.40-full-install-linux-installer.run

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/xc32-v1.31-linux-installer.run.tar

Execute the following to run MPLAB X IDE:
/opt/microchip/mplabx/v3.26/mplab_ide/bin/mplab_ide

I installed the JRE in /usr/java. (ref here)

Windows 8 + Latest MPLab X IDE + My project
Install the following:
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/MPLABX-v3.26-windows-installer.exe
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/xc32-v1.40-full-install-windows-installer.exe
(It seems XC32 r1.4.0 has known issues, multiple definition of `_atexitptr')
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/xc32-v1.31-windows-installer.exe
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/harmony_v1_07_01_windows_installer.exe

MPLAB® Harmony Configurator (MHC) Installation ...
http://microchip.wikidot.com/harmony:mhc-installation

(2010/12/27) GnuWin32
http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/
http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages.html

Download and install the following to C:\Program Files (x86)\Microchip\MPLABX\v3.26\gnuBins:
http://iweb.dl.sourceforge.net/project/gnuwin32/sed/4.2.1/sed-4.2.1-setup.exe
http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/project/gnuwin32/grep/2.5.1-2/grep-2.5.1-2-bin.exe   http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net/project/win32svn/1.8.15/Setup-Subversion-1.8.15.msi

(2011/03/17) win-bash - bash port for Windows
http://win-bash.sourceforge.net/
http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/project/win-bash/shell-complete/latest/shell.w32-ix86.zip
ONLY copy the sh.exe to C:\Program Files (x86)\Microchip\MPLABX\v3.26\gnuBins\GnuWin32\bin.

I have a Chinese Windows 8, but it seems MPLAB X doesn't support Chinese and the error message during building project become Chinese and not readable on MPLAB X. I tried changing the system language but not work.

This could be workaround by removing the locale C:\Program Files (x86)\Microchip\MPLABX\v3.26\gnuBins\GnuWin32\share\locale.



Changes to port a project between Windows and Linux MPLAB
  1. Windows executables has suffix .exe, e.g. date.exe, while Linux doesn't
  2. Windows path separate with slash "\", while Linux with backslash"/". Sometimes file path might be written in Windows form, e.g in nbproject/configurations.xml:
    ..\..\harmony\framework\driver\ethmac\src\drv_ethmac_local.h
    Change to:
    ../../harmony/framework/driver/ethmac/src/drv_ethmac_local.h
  3. Windows "make" can expand wildcard in double quote, while Linux doesn't. For example, Linux cannot handle the following:
    cp -r "./foo/*" "./foobar"
    I have double quote on every parameter and even some command, it cause problem when there are wildcard in it.
  4. Windows "make" seems require additional escape char, while Linux doesn't. For example:
    sed -i '/<\\/head>/ i\\' "header.inc"





http://www.paintyourdragon.com/uc/ubw32/index.html

https://www.microchip.com/development-tools

http://microchip.wikidot.com/tls0101:start

http://microchip.wikidot.com/tls0101:get-compiler

http://www.microchip.com/mplab/compilers

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/MPLABC32-v105-Evaluation.exe

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/pic32-microchip-release-1-05-20090302-source.tar.gz

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/pk2cmdv1.20LinuxMacSource.tar.gz

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/MPLABC32-v105-Upgrade.exe

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/MPLABX-v3.26-linux-installer.tar

2016年4月7日 星期四

Priority Inversion in Linux

2016.04.08
Latest vanilla kernel: 4.5, 4.6-rc2
Used kernel: 3.4.27

Priority inversion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priority_inversion
Introduction to Priority Inversion | Embedded
http://www.embedded.com/electronics-blogs/beginner-s-corner/4023947/Introduction-to-Priority-Inversion

20060303-Priority inheritance in the kernel [LWN.net]
https://lwn.net/Articles/178253/

20140307-RT PREEMPT HOWTO - RTwiki
https://rt.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/RT_PREEMPT_HOWTO
Index of /pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt
https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt/

Preemption (computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeslicing
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preemption_%28computing%29#Time_slice

2016年3月24日 星期四

MME UE S1AP ID 2


LTE HO : Why two MME UE S1AP IDs present within the S1-AP HO Request message ?
http://tech.queryhome.com/45691/lte-ho-why-two-mme-s1ap-ids-present-within-the-request-message
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/tsg_ran/WG3_Iu/TSGR3_70bis/Docs/R3-110241.zip

2    Discussion
2.1    X2 HO between HeNBs (Source and Target connected via the GW)
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/tsg_ran/wg3_iu/TSGR3_70/Docs/R3-103812.zip
If the GUMMEI IE is contained in the INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST message, the eNB shall store this information in the UE context and use it for subsequent X2 handovers.
If the MME UE S1AP ID 2 IE is contained in the INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST message, the eNB shall store this information in the UE context and use it for subsequent X2 handovers.
ETSI TS 136 413 V10.0.1 (2011-01 )
LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E- UTRAN); S1 Application Protocol (S1AP) (3GPP TS 36.413 version 10.0.1 Release 10 )
http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/136400_136499/136413/10.00.01_60/ts_136413v100001p.pdf

2016年2月26日 星期五

Cisco HeNBGW require "Source MME GUMMEI" in the Path Switch Request?

3GPP specification: 36.413
http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36413.htm

ETSI TS 136 413 V10.9.0
http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/136400_136499/136413/10.09.00_60/ts_136413v100900p.pdf ,p.88

9.1.5.8 PATH SWITCH REQUEST
Source MME GUMMEI "Optional"
http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/136400_136499/136413/09.10.00_60/ts_136413v091000p.pdf ,p.83
9.1.5.8 PATH SWITCH REQUEST(No Source MME GUMMEI field)

Although the "Source MME  GUMMEI" is optional in release 10, it's said that Cisco HeNBGW require it in its Path Switch Request?

LTE X2 Handover Messaging
http://www.eventhelix.com/lte/handover/LTE-X2-Handover-Messaging.pdf#page=6

LTE eNodeB Handover over the X2 Interface
http://www.eventhelix.com/lte/handover/x2/lte-x2-handover-sequence-diagram.htm#.VtBxLTWkVC1

HeNB - GW Administration Guide, StarOS  Release 17 Last Updated February 27, 2015
http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/td/docs/wireless/asr_5000/17-0/PDF/17-HeNBGW-Admin.pdf
HENBGW have to route S1 PATH SWITCH REQUEST message from HENB towards the MME based on the GUMMEI of the source MME received from the HeNB. If HENBGW receives CSG ID IE and Cell Access Mode IE in the S1 PATH SWITCH REQUEST, the same should be forwarded to MME. In case of S1 PATH SWITCH REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE message, HENBGW will inform the HeNB about the MME UE S1AP ID assigned by the MME and the MME UE S1AP ID assigned by the HeNB GW for the UE. 

2016年2月20日 星期六

RightToClick

RightToClick 一鍵破解右鍵鎖,解除網頁複製、右鍵選單封鎖 - 電腦玩物
http://www.playpcesor.com/2010/08/righttoclick.html

RightToClick :: Add-ons for Firefox
https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/righttoclick/

Firefox 現在要怎麼停用 javascript?破解網頁右鍵或是其它擾人的效果 | 就是教不落 - 給你最豐富的 3C 資訊、教學網站
http://steachs.com/archives/6920
Fx 23 的 javascript 選項該怎麼設定?
https://forum.moztw.org/viewtopic.php?p=180536

about:config
javascript:enable 改為 false
回復右鍵,可以將dom.event.contextmenu.enabled換成false


2016年2月19日 星期五

姑婆芋

姑婆芋,英文叫做大象的耳朵(Giant Elephant's Ear),屬於天南星科(Araceae)姑婆芋屬(Alocasia)。

佛焰苞肉質,綠色;雌花在下,雄花在上,中央為中性花。漿果球形,鮮紅色,具少數種子。
成熟時紅豔的姑婆芋果實,看起來像是一堆紅色珍珠

全島的低海拔山區間,無論是天然原始林還是人工林,只要是潮濕環境都有機會發現它的蹤跡。它是生命力 非常強韌的植物。它大部分位在森林的底層,陽光不是很充足,所以它的花不是很顯眼,照道理講它的果也不會很顯眼,但姑婆芋的果實卻很顯眼,總是被鳥吃掉。一般森林底層的植物,比較不會靠種子來繁殖,因為在底層動物比較不會接觸到,所以它的地下走莖繁殖力超強,會迅速佔據整片山野,且不容易剷除。

全株有毒,以塊莖毒性最大,來自姑婆芋中的生物鹼;因臨床表現以喉嚨疼痛最多,另有口腔麻木、說話不清、腸胃灼痛,嚴重者會暫時神經錯亂。吃到嘴巴會痛,喉嚨腫起來,肚子更痛,痛到在地上打滾

姑婆芋會讓人的喉嚨腫起來,但山豬會吃菇婆芋的花苞,一直吃到結果。山豬在森林底層吃各種果實,就會吃到寄生蟲的卵,肚子裡就會有許多寄生蟲,讓肚子很不舒服,於是會去吃姑婆芋。雖然消化道會有些腫,但是,那些寄生蟲就會殺光。小豬若吃不到會將植株推倒,或是先挖根部再將植株推倒。所以獵人看到姑婆芋的根被咬過,就可知道附近有山豬

姑婆芋汁液會引皮膚發癢紅腫,觸及眼睛會劇痛,只要超過皮膚沒辦法適應的,我們稱之有毒。那皮膚碰到姑婆芋的汁液要怎麼辦? 碰到以後,只會發癢(因為它含有強鹼),用水沖洗有用 !

但在野外被咬人狗、咬人貓咬後,除了可用阿摩尼亞藥水處理,也可以姑婆芋的汁液來消除痛癢,更是郊區被昆蟲叮咬的緊急用藥。可以用姑婆芋葉莖中的汁擦在癢處就可治癢。

其所含的生物 鹼,正是剋制「咬人狗」和「咬人貓」酸性毒的良藥,野外活動被咬人狗葉面毛刺扎到,將姑婆芋的根莖搗爛後塗抹在患部,可消腫解毒,對蜜蜂和螞蟻的蟻酸,也 具有同樣的療效。更神奇的是,通常有「咬人狗」和「咬人貓」生長的地方,附近一定找得到姑婆芋

但是種特種部隊也會吃姑婆芋,他會將姑婆芋切得很細,然後用水去煮,煮完將水倒掉,煮了七、八次,當水沒有刺激味時,就可以食用。

果實也可以吃,當它變紅的時候,竹雞會來吃,但是人還是不能吃,吃了同樣會講不出話來,一直要等到小鳥來吃的時候,植物鹼才全部退掉,此時就可以吃它的果實。

用途

在鄉間常可見姑婆芋的蹤跡,生活上更是習習相關,塑膠袋未發明以前,市場大都用姑婆芋葉片來包裹食物,魚、肉、豆腐…,如今塑膠袋、紙袋的盛行,姑婆芋葉功成身退,偶而仍可看見海產店使用,襯底展售魚貨,讓海產更鮮活。登山健行碰上下雨時,它更是最好的天然大帽子。

葉子可以當水瓢取水。以前布農族分肉之時,如果沒有袋子可裝時都用姑婆芋的葉子把肉包起來帶回家。

當原住民口渴時會將葉片捲成杯子形狀,做為盛接山泉或舀用溪水飲用的器具

在原住民各族中,姑婆芋的塊莖大都是拿來餵豬,但因塊莖吃了會產生麻痛感,連豬也不願生吃。布農族、賽夏族和排灣族等多族都是先將塊莖煮熟後,才用以餵豬。至於鄒族人則會將姑婆芋根莖弄碎,放上一段時間發酵後,再給豬隻食用。雖然姑婆芋不能食用,但特殊的是,姑婆芋竟被原住民多族應用於釀酒。

龍貓的雨傘

姑婆芋大型葉片可充做雨傘擋雨,或接合多片葉子做成暫時性的雨衣。而在野外採集食物過程時,若無器皿盛裝,姑婆芋就是隨手可得的最佳材料。鄒族人常將採摘的野生木耳或菇類以姑婆芋葉包裹保鮮;
排灣族人則會用葉片蓋住撿到的大蝸牛,避免牠乾死;魯凱族人採集野蜂蜜最外層時亦拿姑婆芋葉片來包裹,也會用來包住可以食用和製作小米糕及「吉拿福」的假酸漿(lhabulu)葉子。

原住民會拿姑婆芋果實來作誘鳥陷阱中的誘餌

姑婆芋全株有毒,為何拿來包食物? 老人家說葉子的汁液少且帶回家還要清洗,所以沒人因此中毒啦

藥用:根莖搗爛,可外敷腫毒。性味:根莖及莖:辛、寒、有毒。效用:清熱解毒,消腫散結,去腐生肌。治熱病高熱,流感,肺癆,傷寒,風濕關節痛,鼻塞流涕,腹痛、霍亂;外用治疔瘡腫毒,蟲蛇咬傷。

動物的家


除了啄食果實的鳥類與在花序間覓食、在果實上大快朵頤的扁鍬形蟲、協助授粉的小型昆蟲,還可以見到許多在葉柄上、葉面上活動的昆蟲與小型動物,例如非洲大蝸牛等軟體動物,或是大剌剌停棲在葉面、葉背的紅紋沫蟬、蝗蟲、四紋象鼻蟲、淡褐象鼻蟲外,還有許多天蛾科蛾類的幼蟲是以姑婆芋為寄主植物之ㄧ,更是把姑婆芋的葉片啃得滿目瘡痍,看似平靜的姑婆芋,實際上卻充滿了生機。

蝸牛、樹蛙、昆蟲,如:姑婆芋葉蟬、扁鍬形蟲

紅紋沫蟬

在植物的枝葉間常見到一 團團白色的泡沫(不僅在野外,連市區的小草上也很常見),常讓人以為是缺德的人隨地吐痰而感到噁心,也常讓為誤以為肥皂泡沫,但肥皂泡沫怎麼會出現在這 裡?拿根小草撥弄,可以發現有隻小蟲子藏身其中,原來這是一種叫做「紅紋沫蟬」的昆蟲若蟲的傑作,因此它們又有「泡沫蟲」之稱。紅紋沫蟬又稱為紅胡麻斑沫 蟬,若蟲主要以苧麻為寄主植物,在吸食植物的汁液後,便由肛門排出後,與腹部第七、八節處之泡沫腺所分泌之膠質相混、攪拌,並蠕動腹部混入空氣後所形成, 這些泡沫不容易被水所溶解,也就不怕被雨水沖失,幼蟲就躲避在泡沫中躲避天敵之捕食,也可以在泡沫中安穩的吸食植物之汁液,直到羽化以後才離開,不過也有 些若蟲是離開沫巢以後才羽化的。


References:


http://yukrlee.blogspot.tw/2007/02/aabab-abbab-10mm4mm-3mmagriocnemis.html?m=1

http://gaga.biodiv.tw/9702bx/507.htm

http://blog.yam.com/ccchen570315/article/36083938

http://foxsland.pixnet.net/blog/post/26328135-%5B%E8%87%A8%E6%99%82%E6%BC%94%E5%93%A1%5D%E5%A7%91%E5%A9%86%E8%8A%8B%E4%BD%BF%E7%94%A8%E6%95%99%E5%AD%B8

http://web2.nmns.edu.tw/Archive/nmns_2012/public/BotanicalGarden/flowers/summer/1010612.html

http://mikachen.pixnet.net/blog/post/224023252-%E5%A7%91%E5%A9%86%E8%8A%8B%E7%9A%84%E5%B0%8F%E8%AA%8D%E8%AD%98

http://team.boe.ttct.edu.tw/native/paper_print.asp?id=8288

https://tw.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070227000010KK11829

http://www.fyps.kh.edu.tw/plants/%E9%B3%B3%E9%99%BD%E5%9C%8B%E5%B0%8F%E6%A4%8D%E6%A0%BD%E7%B6%B2%E9%A0%81/%E6%A4%8D%E6%A0%BD%E8%B3%87%E6%96%99/%E4%B8%AD%E5%BA%AD%E6%A4%8D%E7%89%A9%E8%B3%87%E6%96%99/%E5%A7%91%E5%A9%86%E8%8A%8B%20-%20%E6%9C%89%E6%AF%92.htm

http://jeannike.pixnet.net/blog/post/28064634-%E6%9C%89%E6%AF%92%E7%9A%84%E5%92%AC%E4%BA%BA%E8%B2%93%E2%80%A7%E5%92%AC%E4%BA%BA%E7%8B%97%E2%80%A7%E5%A7%91%E5%A9%86%E8%8A%8B%E4%B8%89%E8%A7%92%E9%97%9C%E4%BF%82 http://jeannike.pixnet.net/blog/post/21712189-%E5%A7%91%E5%A9%86%E8%8A%8B%E3%80%81%E8%8A%8B%E9%A0%AD

http://sowhc.sow.org.tw/html/observation/plant/e01plant/e10104gupoyu/gupoyu.htm

http://sowhc.sow.org.tw/html/photo02/101photo/24/1011010/1011010.htm

https://www.facebook.com/miasanoutdoor/photos/a.246450105475544.56027.246440122143209/378059788981241/?type=1&theater

http://210.240.125.35/citing/citing_content.asp?id=3631&keyword=%A4s%BD%DE

http://www.inmjh.kh.edu.tw/project/rinari/htm/06htm/0602.htm

2016年2月15日 星期一

蝸牛

蝸蝸園 - 台灣陸生蝸牛交流園地
https://m.facebook.com/groups/283177105146997

羅東自然教育中心: 【生態紀錄】話說蝸牛(上)
http://luodong-nec.blogspot.tw/2016/01/blog-post.html?m=1

羅東自然教育中心: 【生態記錄】話說蝸牛(下)
http://luodong-nec.blogspot.tw/2016/02/blog-post.html?m=1

非禮勿視_蝸牛的「傳宗接代 」 - YouTube
https://youtu.be/v1yWjsUb6EQ


蝸牛下蛋 第一次看到耶 難得的一幕!! - YouTube
https://youtu.be/uqnuSlt4hw0